Dr. Willemijn says this:
This is the Immunologist Homepage. Dr. Bea, Dr. Ziye, and me (Dr. Willemijn) hope you enjoy this page!
We are studying about the immune system; the function of it. So, how bacteria enters the body, and what the B-, and T- cells then do to them.

Written by Dr. Willemijn; edited by Dr. Daryl and then by Dr. Sawyer:
First, the bacteria or virus has to pass your first line of defense, your skin. Your skin is really helpfull because it flakes of When you get a cut, that is one easy way for bacteria to enter. When you get a cut blood rushes to the spot where you got the cut. The blood is carrying platlets, the platlets are cells that harden around the cut and they block pathogens from getting in (as you have probably heard the platlets make scabs). When a bacteria or a virus enters the body, the function of the macrophage is to engulf as many as possible. Small infections are easily destroyed by the macrophage. If the macrophage cannot engulf all of them, he quickly sticks some of the bacteria to the outside of it and goes to a nearby lymph node or spleen. There he informs all the other white blood cells how the bacteria or virus looks like by showing them the ones that are stuck on it. There, helper T-cells quickly divide themselves to multiply. Killer T-cells and B-cells also set off to look for these viruses. The helper T-cells also look for them. When helper T-cells find the virus, they send a signal to the others. The killer T-cells destroy any virus or infected cell they find. B-cells release something called an antibody, which works differently on different viruses. The antibody stops the virus from causing anymore damage, and it also sends signals to killer T-cells. But, as well as the Immune System works, there are many weaknesses. For example, AIDS. AIDS aims for the Immune System itself! AIDS destroy macrophages and helper T-cells, leaving no cells to send out the B-cells and killer T-cells! AIDS also use the weakened macrophages and helper T-cells as factories to make more AIDS viruses. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is what causes AIDS. But people do not die of AIDS itself, they die of any other bacteria that enters the body, because no cells are left to warn the B-cells and killer T-cells, and they cannot kill AIDS.
So it is important to keep the body healthy, so you don't catch AIDS and have enough white blood cells to tackle any other virus.

Dr. Daryl says:
I would also like to introduce myself (Dr. Daryl), Dr. Sawyer, and Dr. Leah Mae.

Dr. Sawyer says:
This picture that you see on this page is a picture of cancer. The cancer is being killed by immune system's killer T-cells. The red object on this picture is the cancer, and the long green objects are the killer T-cells.

external image 96500b.jpg


This is a picture of pathogens.
external image pathogens.jpg

picture source: http://www.a1organics.com/images/pathogens.jpg

Here is a great cite that you can use: http://health.howstuffworks.com/immune-system.htm

Dr. Daryl says...
Listed below are a few websites to resolve a few diseases. For example, the flu.
I hope these websites will help you if you have these symptoms!

To get great images on what is happening in your body, check this website:

Dr. Bea says...
The immune system is your body’s way of defending itself from viruses and bacteria. Your immune system is like your body’s army. The immune system consists of types of white blood cells called macrophages, T-cells and B-cells. Here’s how it works: first, when the germ enters your body, a macrophage finds the bacteria or virus and eats it, and then the macrophage goes to the nearest lymph node or the spleen to tell the T and B cells that germs are invading the body. Next, the T-cells find the germs and start attacking them while the B-cells create antibodies to attack the germs with. The antibodies cover up the germs so they can’t harm the body anymore and it will be easier for the T-cells to kill the germs, and finally, the germs are killed and they go away.
It is extremely important to keep your immune system healthy because if it gets weak, you could get very sick and your body won’t have an easy way of getting better! You can keep your immune system healthy by getting enough rest, eating healthy foods, and taking vitamins. Doing these things will also make you feel much better and healthier, which means you immune system is ready and good to go!
There are also some immune system disorders, like allergies and some of the major ones are diseases like AIDS. Allergies are very minor disorders that often just make you sneeze or you might get an itch. AIDS however, is a major immune system disorder. Caused by HIV, AIDS is a virus that slowly destroys your immune system. When your immune system is being destroyed by AIDS, it is too weak to even defend your body from a cold! Therefore, you could die of a cold if you have AIDS.
external image Immune%20Sys.jpg
This picture shows what your immune system does when a virus enters your body.
I got the picture from http://www.eicsd.k12.ny.us/staffweb/jDipzins/Curriculum/7th%20Grade/Diseases/Immune%20Sys.jpg

I got my information from these websites. If you click on them, you can learn more about the immune system.
Here's a video about the immune system: http://www.worldbookonline.com/wb/Media?id=am000069&st=immune+system

Dr. Daryl says...
What is a macrophage?
A marophage looks a lot like this:
external image cellular_macrophage.jpg This is a picture of a macrophage in the process of surrounding a tumor cell. I got this picture from: http://www.gcarlson.com/images/cellular_macrophage.jpg
A macrophage's job is to clean of easy viruses. If a macrophage catches a virus before it has time to multiply, it is quickly destroyed by the macrophage. If there are too many viruses, the macrophage will consume as many as possible, also bringing a sample of the virus to a nearby lymph node or the spleen, where the other cells are waiting.

What does a shot do?
A shot will send harmless viruses into your bloodstream. A shot's purpose is to allow your immune system to attack these harmless viruses, creating memory B- and T-cells to remember that virus.
Dr.Josiah says:
The immune system is a group of "cells, molecules, and tissues that help defend the body against diseases and other harmful invaders it also provides a variety of potential damaging substances that can invade the body".These substances include disease-causing organisims such as "bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses" once these organisims enter the body the macrophage sticks the organisims and then the B cells detct the organisims and produce antibodies to stick on the organisims then special proteins come to attach themselves to the organisims and poping the organisims and thee macrophge eats all the organisims.It is important you keep our body system health because if you odn't keep it healthy your procetive cell will die and whenever organisims come no one will protect you . To get more information go to this website: http://www.worldbookonline.com/wb/Article?id=ar273215&st=immune%20system
Heres how a helper T-cell looks like: external image 4.gif
This picture came from: http://www.boehringer-ingelheim.com/hiv/art/img/4.gif
Dr. Hyun Ju says: When the virus goes into the skin, the Macrophage is the first cell to notice the virus coming in.
These are the steps for immune system

1. Macrophage comes to the virus and eats the bateriums.
2. Macrophage calls the helper T cells. The helper T cells divide to many cells to and army.
3. Helper T cells call the killer T cells and B cells to kill other virus.
4. B cells shoot the Antibodies to kill them easier.
5. Special proteins comes and punch holes to destroy the virus.
6. The macrophage comes to the virus and eats it to clean up the mess.

Dr. Mei Huii also says: besides the magnificent explanation that dr. hyun ju gave above here is another kind of fascinating description of how the body repels the germs in an epic battle.
1. Virus enters the body.
2. Macrophage spots the virus and 'eats' them
3. The 'eaten' virus then turns into an antigen
4. The antigens activate helper T cells
5. The helper T cells divide several thousand times to make a huge army
6. The helper T cells call the killer T cells for reinforcemants
7. The killer T cells assassinate any other cell that is infected with bacteria (pathogens). They recognise this by the antigens that the cells have.
8. Helper T cells also activate B cells.
9. B cells make antibodies
10. Antibodies makes it easier to murder the virus
11. Special proteins murder the evil bacterium
12. The macrophages come over and have a very nice buffet

The immune system will be adversely effected if 1) a cell over multiplies resulting in cancer or 2) the immune can't differentiate between itself and the enemy and attacks itself (suicide) this is called autoimmune diseases

Dr. hu- (mei huii- yes doctor hu?)